There are many different approaches to Buddhism. For many, Buddhism is a type of psychology - a way of understanding human experience, the human condition, and the laws of nature.
Buddhist Psychology is being used more and more in psychotherapy in America and other countries. Some of the initial ideas were put forth by the historical Buddha, 2500 years ago. Two basic ideas are The Four Noble Truths and the Eight-Fold Path.
1) To live is to desire, and desire can cause pain. All living creatures desire things. Any of us at any given time, may or may not get what we desire. When we do not get what we desire, or lose the things we love, we feel pain. When we are hurting, we issue a complaint (even if we just keep it to ourselves). We may go to a doctor or a therapist and state it as a matter of fact: "I am hurting." Acknowledging the fact that you are hurting gives you a chance to heal.
2) Too much attachment to your desires can cause deep suffering. This is like a diagnosis. "You are too attached to your desires." This "diagnosis" is one that most Buddhists believe would describe the condition which lies at the heart of all human suffering.
3) There is a way to heal from your deep suffering. This is like a prognosis. A pronouncement that there is a cure for the suffering which you and others experience in your lives.
4) That way is the Eight Fold Path. This is like the treatment. Because this is not truly a medical matter, we will find that the Eight-Fold Path is a way to approach life which will lead you out of suffering. More on the Four Noble Truths.